S. Yarzi 2009. English-Pashto-Dari Dictionary, 4th Edition. London: Sabawoon Language Services. Provides translations of ~18,000 English words in both Pashto and Dari. Does not provide transliteration of Pashto or Dari words.
S. Yarzi 2009. English-Pashto Dictionary, 1st Edition. London: Sabawoon Language Services. Provides translations of ~18,000 English words into Pashto. Does not provide transliteration of Pashto words.
Robert Sampson 2004. A Dictionary of Spoken Pukhto. Peshawar: Interlit Foundation. Provides translations of ~8,000 English words into Pashto, with an emphasis on the Eastern dialect.
Afghan National Islamic Council in the United States 2002. English-Pushtu Dictionary. New Delhi: Star Publications. ~800 pages.
Qayum Zahid Mushwani 2009. English-Pashto Dictionary With Pronunciation. Available from Shah M Book Co. in Afghanistan.
Pushtu Academy 2007. English Pushtu Dictionary: The Pushtu Academy’s Larger Pushtu Dictionary, A Bilingual Dictionary. Simon Wallenburg Press. A poor quality reproduction of the Pashto Academy’s 1975 dictionary. Many words are illegible. ~800 pages.
Dr. Abdul Hamid Bahij and the Academy of Sciences of Afghanistan 2008. Pashto-English Dictionary. Kabul: Danish Publishing Association. Provides translations of ~17,000 Pashto words into English.
Zeeya A. Pashtoon 2009. Pashto-English Dictionary, First Edition. Dunwoody Press. ~55,000 entries.
Habibullah Tegey and Barbara Robson 1993. Pashto-English Glossary for the CAL Pashto Materials. Washington DC: Center for Applied Linguistics. Provides translations of ~5,000 Pashto words into English. Available for free download from the Education Resources Information Center. Part of a larger Pashto textbook series.
Henry George Raverty 1867. A Dictionary of the Pukhto, Pushto or Language of the Afghans. London: Williams and Norgate. Reprinted by various publishers. Digitized, searchable free version available here.
Other Dictionaries and Phrasebooks
Nicholas Awde and Asmatullah Sarwan 2002. Pashto Dictionary & Phrasebook. New York: Hippocrene Books. Provides translation of ~1,700 Pashto words into English and ~1,700 English words into Pashto. Roughly half of the book is devoted to common Pashto phrases, organized by theme. Pashto represented only in transliteration.
Lori Fulghum 2008. Pashto Phrasebook: A Guide for Newcomers. Peshawar: Interlit Foundation. ~140 pages of common Pashto phrases with an emphasis on the Eastern dialect.
Josette McMichael 2008. Pocket Medical Pashto. Peshawar: Interlit Foundation. Small medical reference and dictionary. ~150 pocket-sized pages.
S. Kattak 2009. English-Pashto and Pashto-English Word to Word Bilingual Dictionary. Delhi: Star Publications. ~340 pages.
Latif Jan Babai 2010. Dictionary of Pashto-English Infinitives. Available from Shah M Book Co. in Afghanistan.
E. C. Parnwell and Niaz M. Aajiz 2008. New Oxford Picture Dictionary English-Pashto. Karachi: Oxford University Press. ~80 pages. Available from Shah M Book Co. in Afghanistan.
Farid Saydwee, Mohammad Atmar and Yama Meerzada 2011. Pashtu Picture Dictionary. San Diego: SDSU. ~180 pages. Sample available for download here.
Babur Abbas 2010. The Pashto Phrasebook. Seattle: CreateSpace. ~55 pages. Provides the Pashto equivalent of ~500 English words and phrases. Some words/phrases appear more than once and many others are simply English cognates.
Ghayan Chand 2007. English – Pashto, Pashto – English Dictionary. Simon Wallenburg Press. Apparently an unattributed and poor quality reproduction of H.W. Bellew’s 1867 dictionary. ~350 pages.
Henry Walter Bellew 1867. A Dictionary of the Pukhto or Pushto Language. Reprinted by various publishers. English-Pashto and Pashto-English dictionary. ~350 pages.
J. G. Lorimer 1901. Grammar and Vocabulary of Waziri Pashto. Calcutta. ~40 pages of grammar, ~270 pages of a Waziri-English and English-Waziri dictionary. Waziri Pashto is represented only in transliteration. Available for free viewing on Google Books.
Qamosona.com Contains Pashto-English and English-Pashto dictionaries as well as Pashto-German, Pashto-French, Pashto-Dari and many others. 100,000+ entries. Easy to search and very useful.
A Dictionary of the Pukhto by H.G. Raverty. Digitized version of the 1867 dictionary hosted by the University of Chicago. Pashto script with transliteration.
A Digital Pashto-English Dictionary with Audio: 1,000 Words from a Core Vocabulary. Created by Wilma Heston in 2005. Hosted by the University of Chicago.
Ijunoon.com: Pashto Dictionary. Searchable English-Pashto dictionary. Many common words are not included. Represents Pashto only in transliteration.
A Grammar of Pashto: A Descriptive Study of the Dialect of Kandahar, Afghanistan by Herbert Penzl. The glossary of the above 1955 book. Pashto is represented only in romanized script in somewhat obscure transliteration.
English to Pashto Military Lexicon. Online text file. Provides translations of ~700 English words into Pashto. Pashto represented only in transliteration.
Pashto Dictionaries in Languages Other than English
K.A. Lebiedief, C.Yasowich, M. A. Konarovski 1983. Russian-Pashto-Dari Dictionary. Moscow. Provides translations of ~20,000 Russian words into Pashto and Dari.
P.B. Zudin (ed) 1963. Russian-Afghan Dictionary. Moscow. Also includes a ~130 page section on Pashto grammar by D.A. Shafeev.
Dictionaries represent Pashto words in both the Pashto script and romanized transliteration, unless otherwise noted.
When links to print dictionaries are given, it is in the case of harder to find books and is generally to the original publisher. Dictionaries without links can usually be found at Amazon.com or other online sources.
A Note on Looking up Pashto Words
Apart from the universal difficulty of foreign language translation, Pashto offers particular challenges to the language learner. In the Pashto script the spelling of some words can vary widely, even within a single text. However, most words do have an accepted standardized spelling.
Many Pashto words are shared or taken from Dari (or Farsi), Arabic, and Urdu. Some recent words have origins in other languages such as English. Pashto speakers and writers may sometimes use words not found in any Pashto dictionary. In such instances the word might be found in a Dari, Urdu, or Arabic dictionary. Pashto spoken in Afghanistan borrows most commonly from Dari.
When searching an online dictionary using the Pashto script it is important to use the correct form of the six different ‘yaa’ (ی،ي،ې،ې،ۍ،ئ) characters. When a ‘yaa’ character is found in the beginning or middle of a word (ي) is most commonly used.